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Q 5.68

Expert-verified
Found in: Page 199

### An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Book edition 1st
Author(s) Daniel V. Schroeder
Pages 356 pages
ISBN 9780201380279

# Plumber's solder is composed of 67% lead and 33% tin by weight. Describe what happens to this mixture as it cools, and explain why this composition might be more suitable than the eutectic composition for joining pipes.

As a result, the tin and lead mixture is better for joining pipes.

See the step by step solution

## Step 1: Given information

Plumber's solder is composed of 67% lead and 33% tin by weight.

## Step 2: Explanation

Take a look at the phase diagram for a tin-lead mixture in the graph below. By weight, the solder combination contains 67 percent lead and 23 percent tin. If the mixture cools, the temperature will drop from the dashed red line on the graph until it hits the temperature boundary between the liquid phase and the solid Pb-Liquid phase, which is 250 K, and the lead will begin to freeze. The remaining liquid includes a higher percentage of tin, so the point at which it freezes will be lower, and the remaining liquid will again contain a higher percentage of tin, so the point at which it freezes will be lower. This cycle will continue until the temperature drops below freezing. Because the two curves of the two borders will meet at this moment, all of the remaining mixture will freeze (this point called the eutectic point).

## Step 3: Explanation

The melting temperature of the mixture will decrease more than the eutectic composition for joining the pipes in our situation (where the solder mixture contains 67 percent lead and 23 percent tin by weight). The mixture is more suitable for soldering if the melting temperature is lower. As a result, the tin and lead mixture is better for joining pipes.