In Exercises 1.7-1.12, classify each of the studies as either descriptive or inferential. Explain your answers.
Dow Jones Industrial Averages. From the Stock Performance Guide, published online by Istockl on the website 1Stock1.com, we found the closing values of the Dow Jones Industrial Averages as of the end of December for the years 2004 through 2013.
The given study is descriptive.
The given statement is:
From the Stock Performance Guide, published online by Istockl on the website 1Stock1.com, the closing values of the Dow Jones Industrial Averages as of the end of December for the years 2004 through 2013 are shown in the given table.
The given table in the question shows the closing values of the Dow Jones Industrial Averages as of the end of December for the years 2004 through 2013.
The given information about the closing values is in a summarized form.
Therefore, the given study is descriptive.
Best-Selling Albums. The Recording Industry Association of America provides data on the best-selling albums of all time. As of May 28, 2013, the top six best-selling albums of all time (U.S. sales only), are by the artists the Eagles (E), Michael Jackson (M), Pink Floyd (P), Led Zeppelin (L), AC/DC (A), and Billy Joel (B).
(a). List the 15 possible samples (without replacement) of two artists that can be selected from the six. For brevity, use the initial provided.
(b). Describe a procedure for taking a simple random sample of two artists from the six.
(c). If a simple random sampling procedure is used to obtain two artists, what are the chances of selecting P and A? M and E?
In Exercises 1.17-1.22, state whether the investigation in question is an observational study or a designed experiment. Justify your answer in each case.
Heart Failure. In the paper "Cardiac-Resynchronization Therapy with or without an Implantable Defibrillator in Advanced Chronic Heart Failure" (New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 350, pp. 2140-2150), M. Bristow et al. reported the results of a study of methods for treating patients who had advanced heart failure due to ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathies. A total of 1520 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:2:2 ratio to receive optimal pharmacologic therapy alone or in combination with either a pacemaker or a pacemaker-defibrillator combination. The patients were then observed until they died or were hospitalized for any cause.
Medical Testing on Animals. In its Summer 2013 Animal Action Report, the National Anti-Vivisection Society stated that "59% of Americans between the ages of 18 and 29 oppose medical testing on animals." The percentage of 59% was computed from sample data.
(a). Identify the population under consideration.
(b). Identify the sample under consideration.
(c). Is the statement in quotes descriptive or inferential?
(d). If you wanted to make it clear that the percentage of 59% was computed from sample data, how would you rephrase the statement in quotes?
In Exercises 1.92-1.97, we present descriptions of designed experiments. In each case, identify the
(a) experimental units
(b) response variable
(c) factor (s)
(d) levels of each factor:-
The Lion's Mane. In a study by P. M. West titled "The Lion's Mane" ( American Scientist, Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. 226-236), the effects of the mane of a male lion as a signal of quality to mates and rivals was explored. Four life-sized dummies of male lions provided a tool for testing female response to the unfamiliar lions whose manes varied by length (long or short) and color (blonde or dark). The female lions were observed to see whether they approached each of the four life-sized dummies.
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