In a newspaper or magazine, or on the Internet, find an example of
(a) a descriptive study.
(b) an inferential study.
Part (a) People who have successfully maintained weight loss over time.
Part (b) Occupational health services within the National Health Service.
The given statement is:
Find an example of each a descriptive study and an inferential study in a newspaper or magazine.
"A descriptive study of people who have successfully maintained significant weight loss over time."
The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) is, to our knowledge, the largest study of people who have successfully maintained their weight loss over time. Despite having long histories of obesity, the 629 women and 155 men in the registry shed an average of 30 kg and kept a minimum weight loss of 13.6 kg for 5 years.
A little more than half of the participants lost weight through structured programs, while the rest lost weight on their own. Both groups said they lost weight through diet and exercise, and approximately 77 percent of the participants said a triggering event has been behind their successful weight loss.
"Changing for NHS plus: an inferential study based on the internal provision of occupational health services within the National Health Service" is an example of an inferential study.
'NHS +' was envisioned as a national agency that would offer organizations occupational health services for a fee, without putting a financial strain on taxpayers. The current provision of occupational health services to more than 100,000 National Health Service (NHS) employees by 13 NHS occupational health services of varied sizes was investigated with the goal of identifying an appropriate charge-out rate to third parties.
Two focus groups were asked about their work outside the NHS. The nature of the resourcing link was investigated using regression analysis using data collected on the allocation of doctors and nurses to occupational health services in relation to the number of NHS customers served.
The connection was found to be stable enough to produce a good estimate of personnel requirements (the major resource requirement), and when combined with costing data, inferences about the economic cost and thus the break-even rate of charge for the service could be derived.
After that, published case studies were compared.
The findings show that per capita charges to external clients are lower than the per capita cost of internal NHS occupational health services, raising concerns about the service's viability.
Comparing Gas Mileages. An experiment is to be conducted to compare four different brands of gasoline for gas mileage.
(a) Suppose that you randomly divide 24 cars into four groups of 6 cars each and then randomly assign the four groups to the four brands of gasoline, one group per brand. Is this experimental design a completely randomized design or a randomized block design? If it is the latter, what are the blocks?
(b) Suppose, instead, that you use six different models of cars whose varying characteristics (e.g., weight and horsepower) affect gas mileage. Four cars of each model are randomly assigned to the four different brands of gasoline. Is this experimental design a completely randomized design or a randomized block design? If it is the latter, what are the blocks?
(c) Which design is better, the one in part (a) or the one in part (b)? Explain your answer.
The members of a population are numbered 1-4.
(a). List the 6 possible samples (without replacement) of size 2 from this population.
(b). If an SRS of size 2 is taken from the population, what are the chances of selecting 2 and 3? Explain your answer.
(c). Use Table I in Appendix A to obtain an SRS of size 2 from the population. Start at the single-digit number in line number 17 and column number 7, read down the column, up the next, and so on.
In Exercises 1.92-1.97, we present descriptions of designed experiments. In each case, identify the
(a) experimental units
(b) response variable
(c) factor (s)
(d) levels of each factor:-
Dexamethasone and IQ. In the paper "Outcomes at School Age After Postnatal Dexamethasone Therapy for Lung Disease of Prematurity" (New England Journal of Medicine, Vol . 350, No. 13, pp . 1304-1313), T. Yeh et al . studied the outcomes at school age in children who had participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of early postnatal dexamethasone therapy for the prevention of chronic lung disease of prematurity. One result reported in the study was that, at school age, the control group of 74 children had an average IQ score of 84.4, whereas the dexamethasone group of 72 children had an average IQ score of 78.
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